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中国古代的“点茶”技艺,可以甩[ 泡茶具 ]

中国古代的“点茶”技艺,可以甩[
泡茶具
]的作者东晨朗 东晨朗 发布时间: 2022-08-19 14:01:04 茶叶文化92人已围观

简介图源:中国日报网It's common to see a barista create coffee art, but it's

原标题:

中国古代的“点茶”技艺,可以甩咖啡拉花几条街

本文关键词: 泡茶具

图源:中国日报网

It's common to see a barista create coffee art, but it's a whole different ballgame doing same thing with tea. Han Zheming has managed to perfect the skill, creating tea art in cups, or dian cha in Chinese, which used to be a ritual during the Song Dynasty (960-1279).

如今,咖啡拉花已经很常见,不过在茶汤上作画就鲜为人知了。韩喆明就是这门手艺的传承人,他学习并完善了这一艺术。中文里,这项艺术被称作“点茶”,曾是宋代(960-1279)的一项仪式。

Over the past six years, the 40-year-old Shanghai resident has used tea and spoons to create nearly 200 patterns based on ancient paintings.

在过去六年的时间里,40岁的上海设计师韩喆明使用茶粉和茶勺,在茶汤上勾勒了近200幅古画。

"It's like adding bells and whistles to tea and giving people a stronger sense of occasion, so drinking tea is more fun," Han says.

韩喆明说,“对茶进行艺术加工,可以让人们有更强的仪式感,增加品饮的趣味。”

It's also his intention to bring the old ritual back to modern life and have more people appreciate its charm. Dian cha in modern brewing enhances the taste of tea, Han says. "It is similar to the foam on top of a cup of coffee, except that it is made of tea rather than milk."

他还希望这种古老的中国点茶文化能与当代人的生活相结合,让更多人欣赏它的魅力。韩喆明说,点茶能增强茶的味道。“你可以理解为咖啡上的奶盖,只是它是由茶做的,而不是由奶做的。”

Chinese tea culture started to enjoy popularity during the Tang Dynasty (618-907) and flourished throughout the Song Dynasty, when tea had become a necessity for almost everyone, from nobles and scholars to common people, just like other indispensable items, such as rice, oil and salt, as suggested by Song politician and thinker Wang Anshi.

中国茶文化在唐代(618-907)开始发展起来,在宋代达到了“盛造其极”的境界。正如宋朝政治家、思想家王安石所记录的:彼时茶已成为几乎所有人的必需品,从贵族、学者到普通人,它就像米、油和盐一样不可缺少。

Different from the method of brewing tea during the Tang period, in the Song Dynasty, the prevalent way of having tea was through dian cha. The process begins with hot water being poured over fine powdered tea creating a paste, then more hot water is slowly added as the tea is constantly whisked by hand with a bamboo stick. It is believed that this method later spread to other parts of East Asia, including Japan, where similarities can be seen in the way matcha is prepared today.

与唐代的泡茶方法不同,宋代盛行的喝茶方式是点茶。首先将热水倒在细密的茶粉上,调成糊状,然后慢慢加入更多热水,用茶筅不断击打,直到出现厚厚的泡沫。有人认为,这种方法后来传播到包括日本在内的东亚其他地区,与抹茶的制作方式十分相似。

图源:中国日报网

This action of pouring hot water is called dian, hence the name dian cha, which was listed as an intangible cultural heritage of Runzhou district, Zhenjiang city, Jiangsu province, in 2019.

这种加入热水的动作被称为“点”,“点茶”因此得名。在2019年被列为江苏省镇江市润州区的非物质文化遗产。

"It is sort of like how you mix baby formula with water," Han says about tea-whisking, adding that the key is to practice coordination between the wrist and the arm. "It usually requires whisking the mixture between 180 and 200 times before the water and the tea are fully blended and the froth appears."

“这有点像用水调婴儿的奶粉”,韩喆明说,“点茶的要领在于练习手腕和手臂的协调性。一盏茶大约要击打180-200下,水与茶才会完全融合并出现泡沫。”

Then, one can take the liberty of making artistic designs in the froth with the concocted tea paste.

然后,他便可以用调好的茶膏,自由地在泡沫上作画。

Han has been fascinated by the culture and art of the Song Dynasty, and has engaged in its artistic practices since childhood.

韩喆明自幼学习绘画,对宋代的文化和艺术有着深深的热爱。

"My mother loves traditional culture and I have been leaning toward it under her influence," Han says.

韩喆明说,“我母亲是传统文化爱好者,在她的影响下,我也踏上了这条道路。”

In 2002, Han was admitted to the China Academy of Art in Hangzhou, Zhejiang province, and spent four years learning design.

2002年,韩喆明被位于浙江杭州的中国美术学院录取,并在设计专业学习了4年。

After graduating in 2006, he worked as a graphic designer for a games company in Shanghai, and took great delight in drinking tea. This led him to learning about traditional tea culture and buying ceramic tea sets, especially those made in the style of the Song Dynasty. During the process, he also met people with the same interest.

2006年毕业后,他在上海一家游戏公司担任平面设计师,业余爱好品茶。渐渐地,他开始了解传统茶文化,并购买陶瓷茶具,特别是宋代茶具。在这个过程中,他也遇到了很多志同道合的人。

"We exchanged notes and compared our collections," Han says.

韩喆明说,“我们相互交流心得,欣赏彼此的藏品。”

While studying history journals trying to figure out the reasons behind the use of tea sets, he stumbled upon the art of tea-whisking.

为了弄清楚宋人为何爱用那样的器物来喝茶,韩喆明于是频繁查阅文献,在此过程中接触到了宋代点茶。

"I was amazed by this exquisite way of drinking tea, which was also loved by Emperor Huizong of the Song Dynasty," Han says.

韩喆明说,“点茶这种精致的喝茶方式让我大为赞叹。据说它同样深受宋徽宗喜爱。”

The emperor's book, Treatise on Tea, exposed Han to the details of tea-whisking. In the eyes of people of that time, good tea should be white and fine, Han explains. The better the tea, the whiter it should be, and the longer the froth should last.

宋徽宗所作的《大观茶论》一书,对“点茶”有详细描述。宋人对于好茶的标准,从外观上看,要洁白细腻,越好的茶越白,泡沫越持久。

Han experimented with several kinds of tea, such as green and black, eventually settling on using white tea.

韩喆明用多种茶叶磨成的粉分别做试验,比如绿茶和红茶,最后他选用了白茶。

"It's fermented longer on the surface level and is relatively sweet, and the bubbles are white and fine," he says. "It's the tea that's closest to the description of dian cha of the Song Dynasty."

韩喆明说,“白茶是一种长时间浅层发酵的茶,比较甘甜,打出来的泡沫又白又细。这是最接近宋人描述的茶汤效果的。”

Han was curious about the patterns created on the tea foam, as recounted in ancient documents, and began his attempt at reviving the art form with the understanding that the froth resembles paper, while the tea paste is like ink. Despite a background in classical painting, applying the theory in practice proved to be quite different to how he had imagined.

韩喆明对古代文献记载的茶盏所呈现的画面感到非常好奇,于是他试图“复活”宋人的茶汤创作。他认为茶沫鲜白类似纸张,而茶膏则像墨水。尽管有国画基础,韩喆明在创作过程中还是发现,事实与他的想象有很大出入。

"When it comes to traditional painting, it is about the soft brush against the hard paper, but with the tea, it is the other way round," Han says. "It's the hard teaspoon against the soft froth."

韩喆明说,“在国画里,毛笔在纸上作画是‘软碰硬’,但是用茶勺在松软的茶汤泡沫上作画是‘硬碰软’。”

Some of his classical painting skills can be applied to tea, but require a degree of modification.

一些古典绘画技法可以用于茶上,但需要一定程度的调整。

Han says he often goes to museums to observe Song paintings. "It has to be cautious work, but quick, before the froth dissipates."

韩喆明说,他经常去博物馆看宋画。“下笔需谨慎且快,必须赶在泡沫消失前完成。”

Usually, the whole process has to be completed within 10 minutes. The ideal state is when the tea temperature is around 40 C, ready for the palate. It was through trial and error that Han got going. "Usually, it takes a year of practice for one to fully grasp tea-whisking."

一般来说,从开始点茶到画作完成,时间要控制在10分钟左右。创作的理想条件是茶叶温度在40摄氏度左右,刚好可以入口时。刚开始时,他经历了多次试验和失败。“通常,一个人需要经过一年的练习,才能完全掌握点茶的技巧。”

Now, he can deliver a piece of tea-whisking art in "one take", including reproducing the well-known Eyes Embroidered with Plum Blossomsby Huizong.

如今,他可以一气呵成地在茶盏上作画,包括临摹北宋赵佶的《梅花绣眼图》。

However, the pattern on tea froth will only last for up to an hour.

然而,茶汤上的画面最多只能维持1小时。

"It's an evanescent art," says Han, adding that he takes photos of his work as a way of extending its life.

韩喆明说,“这是一门短暂的艺术。”他给自己的作品拍照,保留它们的美。

With his increasing input to the art, Han quit his job at the games company in 2019 and has been spreading dian cha culture ever since. He put the process of tea-whisking and drawing on social media platforms, including Little Red Book, Bilibili and Douyin. He has more than 20,000 followers on Little Red Book, and some of his videos have received more than 300,000 views.

随着对这门艺术的投入越来越多,为了更好地推广点茶文化,韩喆明在2019年辞去了游戏公司的工作。他把点茶作画的过程发布在小红书、B站和抖音等社交媒体上。他在小红书上已有超过2万名粉丝,一些视频获得了超过30万的浏览量。

Speaking about his understanding of this tea art, Han says it's "to increase aestheticism" rather than change the essence of tea.

谈到他对这种艺术的理解,韩喆明说,对于茶的艺术加工是为了“提升美感”,而不是取代茶的本质。

"As well as the poems, calligraphy and paintings that were created back then, I want more people to understand the items used by people to drink tea, and the reasons behind the ways they prepared tea," he says.

韩喆明说,“除了宋代文人在玩茶时留下的诗词、书画作品等,我希望大家可以了解宋代饮茶的器物,以及当时文人为什么要那么玩茶。”

(来源:中国日报双语新闻微信 编辑:左卓 商桢 周婵 丹妮 记者:杨飞跃 )

来源:中国日报双语新闻微信

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中国古代的“点茶”技艺,可以甩[ 泡茶具 ] 创建时间:2022-08-19 14:01:04

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